Reiser (2001) had described the instructional system design procedures or commonly known as instructional design as encompasses the analysis of learning and performance problems, whereby effort had been put in to design, develop, implement, evaluate and manage the instructional and non-instructional processes and resources intended to improve the learning and performance.
Seels and Richie (1994) had identify four sub components of the instructional design as:
- Instructional Systems Design (ISD) ·
- Message Design
- Instructional Strategies
- Learner Characteristics
How do we design our instruction? What could be our guide for it?
Based on the researches and theories, many instructional designers had created instructional design models to formulate concepts and critical idea in a particular learning theory into the form of models that help the teachers to visualize their problems in structured, systematic and manageable units, design the solution and put their plans into actions.
Gustafson and Branch (2001) had categorized the instructional design models into three categories based on certain criteria:
- Classroom-oriented instructional design models
- Product-oriented instructional design models
- System-oriented instructional design models.
We shall focus on the first two categories.